i Preface

The Missing Link

Techniques for solving technical problems

Creative thinking


Conceptual solutions for conceptual problems


ii Acknowledgments

iii Table of Contents

iv SIT Flowchart

v Table of Example Problems





1 Introduction

Solving problems

How do you solve problems?

Base-line exercise.

Who needs SIT?

Success with SIT

Layout of the book.


2 History of Structured Inventive Thinking

Origin of the Theory of Solving Inventive Problems

Origin of Systematic Inventive Thinking

Origin of Structured Inventive Thinking


3 Overview of Structured Inventive Thinking

What SIT is

Confinement --> Creativity

Adapting to SIT

What SIT is not

SIT in Summary


4 Demonstration of Structured Inventive Thinking

Collection of information and problem statement

The Ice Removal Problem

Selection of objects

SIT: The Closed-World Method

Closed-world diagram

Technological contradiction and the qualitative-change graph

SIT: The Particles Method

Problem Situation-to-Ideal Solution Process

Application of Particles

The And/Or tree

SIT: Objects, Attributes and Functions

Objects, Attributes and Functions

SIT: Object-Attribute-Function Expanded CW-Diagram

SIT: Solution Techniques





Generification of solutions


Comments on Root Cause

Example Problem


5 Information

Define the Problem

The One-Problem Target of SIT

What is the problem?

Ill Defined and Well Defined Problems

Misleading Demonstration Problems

The INFORMATION stage of the SIT process

The One-Problem Target



The Graphic Statement

Elevation to a Puzzle

Example #__ The mountain climbing monk.

Example #__ The Bicycle Transmission Invention

A “Flowery” Picture

The Level of the Puzzle


6 Objects

Tangible Components of a Problem

Fewer is Better

The Closed-world of Objects

Definition of Objects

Selection of a List of Objects

The Bicycle Transmission Problem Continued

Example: Selection of Objects in a Packing Operation

The Two Algorithms of SIT



7 The Closed-World Algorithm

The Closed-world diagram

Object connectivity

Rules for object connectivity

Neighborhood and Environmental objects

Compound objects

Finding the most important object

"Desired Effect" lies in the eye of the beholder

No unique CW-diagram

Example: The Ball-Point Pen Problem

Limited Object Sets

Exercise: List of Objects and CW-Diagram

The Qualitative-Change Graph

Technical Contradiction

A Qualitative-Change in a Problem Characteristic

Example of a Qualitative-Change Graph

Exercise: Qualitative Changes in Problem Characteristics


8. The particles-method algorithm

Magical Particles

A Graphic Procedure

The Ideal Solution or Invention

Exercise: Ideal Solutions

The Solution Path Analysis

Metamorphosis from the Problem Situation to the Solution

Example of a Morph Cartoon

When Time is a Factor

Placement of Particles

From “Smart Little People” to “Particles”

Applying Particles

Examples of Particle’s Placements

Preferred Particles Locations

The And/Or Tree

Initiation/Termination of Particles

Example of the Roughened Ball Continued

The Particle’s Properties Lists

Example of the Roughened Ball Continued

Example: The Ear Wax Problem


9. Objects, Attributes, and Functions

An Object, Attribute, Function Pseudo-Space

Purpose of Expanded CW-Diagrams

What is it -- an Object, an Attribute, or a Function?

Definitions of Objects Their Attributes, Metrics and Functions

Examples of Objects, Attributes, Metrics and Functions

Forces, Fields and Energy

Motion and Flow

Heat -- an Object, an Attribute, a Function, or the Imperfect Metaphor?

Example of Attribute Created Information

Need of an Object-Attribute-Function Expanded CW-Diagram

Example of Development of an Expanded CW-Diagram -- 1st Stage

Construction of an Expanded CW-Diagram

Example of Development of an Expanded CW-Diagram -- 2nd Stage

Example Problem: “A Physicist’s Clock” -- Analysis of a Simple Pendulum

Illustrating the Roles of Objects, Attributes and Functions.



10. Solution Techniques

Five Solution Techniques

Uniqueness: An Investigation of Temporal and Spatial Distinction

Temporal uniqueness

Temporal treatments

Spatial uniqeness

Spatial treatments

Object/Attribute uniqueness

Uniqueness solution ploys

Examples of uniqueness

Dimensionality: An attack on attributes

Examples of dimensionality

Pluralization: An attack on objects

Examples of pluralization

Unification: An attack on functions

Examples of unification

Resources for inventive solutions


Solution Templates

The Ice-Block Removal Problem Revisitd for Solution Templates

Transduction Phenomena

SIT Transduction

A Glass/Mercury Thermometer

The Ice-Block Removal Problem Continued:

Examples of Transduction Phenomena

Transduction is a Function

Transduction Analysis




11. Generification -- a SIT process

Generification reduces psychological barriers

Solution space

The Generic World

Problem Generification

The butter patty melting problem

Information Generification

Object Generification

Attribute Generification

Function Generification

Examples of function generification

Solution Technique Generification

Transducer Generification

Solution Generification



12 Single-Object Functional analysis

The One-Object Situation

Focus on Functions

The Functional-Analysis Diagram

Example of A Single-Object Functional Analysis

Improving a product

Select an object

Define the object

Uses for a knob

Functions of a knob

Construction of a functional diagram for a knob

Attributes Associated by Knob Functions

From a Single-Object Functional Analysis to Solution Techniques

Summary of Knob Solution Concepts



13 Contradictions

Altshuller’s Use of Contradictions

Israeli’s Use of Problem Characteristics

SIT’s Use of Contradictions

Methods for Developing Technological Contradictions

Examples of Constructing SIT Technological Contradictions

The lens polisher problem

The light-bulb filament problem

Qualitative-Change Graphs vs Constituent-Contradiction Graphs



PART II Example Problems



Key to example problems

Example 01: *The lunar and/or head lamp

Example 02: *The forty-ton press

Example 03: The Butter-Patty Melting Problem

Example 04: Solutions for the Ear Wax Problem

Example 05:The Case Hardening Problem

Example 06: The Vapor Cannister Problem

Example 07: The "Smart" Headlamp Problem

Example 08: The Toast Detector Problem

Software security

Experimental timer

The picture hanging kit


13. Potpourri Wrap-Up

1. The Industrial Experience

2. The First SIT Lecture

3. A First SIT Problem

4. Does SIT Work?

5. Introducing SIT Into a Corporation

6. Motivation for this Book





APPENDIX 1. Principal Functions

A Door Hinge

A Lead Pencil

APPENDIX 2. Two-Attribute-Function Associations

Thermal Energy Content

Heat Flow

Gravitational Force

Potential Energy

Hall Effect

Thompson Effect